The Farrowhalt Codex was a document seeking to codify the major laws, regulations, and expectations of the government established by the Farrowhalt Freehold, drafted by Veddel Markwell and Michael Avleston in late 325 AC after the latter was released from prison, and later submitted in early 326 AC after the Farmers' Revolution had began. The document itself is succinct, but manages to explain in detail the bodies of government, their various powers, and in its totality manages to downplay feudalism in favor of the representative democracy that the two -- and by extension the entire Andorasi Con-crownist movement -- sought to establish via the Freehold. It would tie into their beliefs that governments like this could soon exist everywhere, which Michael had formulated during his time in prison as a Planned Union of Freeholds that would unite the entirety of Drakonius under a government supported by these kinds of documents.
The Codex fell out of favor after the defeat of the Farrowhalt Freehold and the deaths of its two framers in 331 AC, but two political entities -- the Principality of Colburgh and the Principality of Voyatia, adherent to the laws of the Lord Paramouncy of Thyllanor but permitted to practice their government -- still follow its basic tenets and their government remains the same as it was when the Freehold existed, albeit without the state of constant war bearing down and impeding their ability to demonstrate the Codex's true functionality.
Whether by the grace of the Five Paragons, the Dragonlord of the Edrosmen or the faiths of the far east or no faith at all but man’s persistence, let it be known henceforth that a nation, composed of men dedicated to the causes of liberty, equality, and the rights of self-determination and fair jurisprudence have established themselves on Andoras, who have chosen to call themselves the “Farrowhalt Freehold”. This following codex will entail its laws and the expectations the citizens of its lands are to have of the government. As determined by the people’s will, anything within this document is subject to change and is invited to be changed should the need arise; the Freehold’s ultimate goal is to establish and oversee a bettered world in which the voice of all its people, be they paupers or even the kings whose feudal government this codex seeks to abolish, are heard and given equal weight according to their rights as citizens of the world, imbued with reasoning and understanding. In hindsight, peoples of all backgrounds and origins will look back on this document and mark it as the first point when the challenges of tyranny, unequal representation, and moral injustice are attacked for the first time, this codex dated and ratified the 8th of February in the year 326 by the Dragomyr calendar.
Article I: The Name of the Nation
- Let it first be known that the new nation shall be dubbed the “Farrowhalt Freehold”, derived from the “Farrowhalt Freehall” which acted as a predecessor to this government. Throughout the rest of this codex, any reference thereof to “Freehold”, “Freehall” or “Farrowhalt” all refer to the same entity that this codex has created laws for and is to be referred to as the “Farrowhalt Freehold” in all official treaties, signatories, correspondences, statements, and official representations otherwise. It shall be up to the Chambers what constitutes any official representation, should the need for certified authenticity arise.
- Overseas territories or satellite states that have been integrated into the Freehold or created from unorganized territory shall be referred to by their chosen name, followed by “Dependency of the Farrowhalt Freehold”.
Article II: The Composition of the Nation
- The Freehold shall be managed by several bodies of government, though all are separate from each other and generally only interact officially when a matter of national interest is brought into discussion; this congregation will be dubbed an Assembly, and is advised to be called henceforth during times of crisis or conflict (This differs from the Chambers Conjoined; see Article V, section V, clause I). The Assembly facilitates ease of communication with the members of the government, though one is not needed to have intergoverment relations.
- The Freehold shall be composed of autonomous states known as principalities, which will be administered by those voted into executive positions, known as Premiers.
- Premiers will perform various roles in government, such as overseeing the collection of tax, deciding regional law, submitting a case to the High Justice for national review, and providing for the peace by arming levies; and a navy, if applicable (See Article VIII on the military).
- Premiers must be of twenty-five years of age and must own property in the principality that they are running for, and are entitled to a term of two years unless a recall election is held by prompt of 5/8th of that principality’s boroughs, after which they will make a decision to leave office or stand for reelection. Premiers can have unlimited terms, so long as the people continue to vote for them.
- If necessary, a principality who feels that a change in leadership must be reached can petition the elected Upper Chamber representative of that principality, who will bring forth a petition to the Chambers Conjoined to begin the process of removing the leader. If a leader is removed, an immediate election is held, unless during times of crisis, during which the Proconsul will appoint a member of the Upper Chamber to act as that principality’s premier until the crisis is dealt with. If no member of the Upper Chamber is available, the Proconsul will assign progressively-descending members of government, down to the citizen prelates of various boroughs or even the premier of another principality.
- The process of removing a leader shall be upheld in the case that a leader dies in office in the same fashion.
- The principalities will be further divided into boroughs, which will be administered by elected officials known as Prelates.
- Prelates must be at least twenty years of age, and must own property in the borough that they are running for. They will be entitled to a term of one year, but can be removed by the Chambers if found necessary. The High Justice will check the Chambers Conjoined to ensure that they are not infringing or wrongfully deposing a prelate, and the prelate will be reinstated if the Chambers are found to be in error.
- The task of the Prelate will be to represent his borough -- this will usually be a citizen of some renown in the area who has chosen to put himself forward for this task. Prelates will be assigned to regions that are sparsely populated, or ones that do not submit a candidate within six months of this codex’s ratification.
- Each principality will be divided into eight boroughs, and the borough shall take the name of that borough’s largest settlement at the time of its creation.
- The Prelates have the task of reporting to the premier -- they are expected to give a state of affairs, and are allowed to join together in council within their principalities. They will be the direct link to the citizens of the Freehold, as they are the ones who will hear their cases and determine a collective petition to the Premier alongside their report, which the Premier will then bring to the Upper Chamber to start a case for the changing of law.
Article III: The Executive Body of the Nation
- The executive body of government shall be composed of the Consulate and Proconsulate, which fulfill various roles in executive positions.
- The Proconsulate and Consulate shall respectively be filled with able-bodied men of at least 25 years of age, and upon election will serve in their position for six years, unless a referendum to remove one or both is brought forth by the Chambers Conjoined and approved by a majority vote.
- The Proconsul’s duties are to act as an administrative leader, though not a leader outright. He is to be a manager of all matters financial and internal, and in times of war a commander-in-chief. His duties shall not overlap with those of the Consulate, except in times of dire crisis when the Consul is incapacitated or otherwise unable to perform his duties and immediate action is needed, and vice versa.
- The Consul’s duties are to act as a diplomatic leader, though not a leader outright, He is to be the chief ambassador, negotiator, and treaty drafter, and he has the power to declare war and call a Tribunal Assembly, whose sole purpose is to try enemies of the state and deal with them accordingly. His duties shall not overlap with those of the Proconsulate, except in times of dire crisis when the Proconsul is incapacitated or otherwise unable to perform his duties and immediate action is needed, and vice versa.
- The Proconsul and Consul are expected to work together to develop the Freehold greater and ensure its security on both internal and external fronts.
- Should either the Proconsul or Consul be failing in their respective duties, there can be proposed a referendum by majority Premier petition which removes them from office, and thus begins an election to elect a new one.
- Any other duties generally thrust upon executive bodies may be accounted for with this clause, but granting of this power is subject to review by the High Justice. The Proconsul and Consul are expected to act within the boundaries of their power, but may propose an amendment to the Codex or the review of a currently-existing law.
- The Proconsul and Consul are not to be misrepresented or misinterpreted as kings or autocrats; the positions merely exist to keep the Freehold in balance, and to check the power of other bodies of government. The most powerful body of government shall be determined by popular choice and is also open to change in times of crisis, when the Proconsul and Consul are able to take on greater responsibility in order to correct the immediate issues present.
- In times of crisis, the Proconsul and Consul may take on greater responsibility, but they are subject to penalties if the High Justice finds their seizing of power to be unjust after this has been done. The offenses range from delegating greater power to the Chambers Conjoined during the time of their tenure, or even being removed from office if the offense is deemed greater.
Article IV: The Legislative Body of the Nation
- The lawmaking body of the Freehold shall be known as the Chambers Conjoined, composed of an Upper Chamber and a Lower Chamber, and a Chamber of Egalitarians (repealed with Addendum IV).
- The Upper Chamber shall entitle every principality to one representative, regardless of size, wealth, or influence. The Upper Chamber’s duties are to oversee and facilitate the interaction of principalities, and to ensure that infighting does not break out. They will work in tandem with the executives in order to provide domestic security and ensure the safe passage of expanded government should the need arise, but their actions must be authorized by the High Justice lest they come into conflict with the rights of the people and the overstepping of boundaries.
- Members of the Upper Chamber, known as Chamberlains Superior, must be over twenty years of age and own property in the territory of the Freehold, and are entitled to five years in office unless removed by proposed referendum. Unlike the Lower Chamber, the Proconsul can directly remove a member of the Upper Chamber and appoint one of his choosing, though he can only replace two chamberlains per term unless he receives permission from the High Justice.
- The Lower Chamber shall entitle every principality to a ratio of one representative per thousand citizens, who will receive petitions from Premiers in order to bring forward cases that potentially will change the laws of the Freehold as a whole.
- Members of the Lower Chamber, known as Chamberlains Inferior, must be over twenty years of age and own property in the Freehold, and are entitled to two years in office unless removed by proposed referendum.
- The Chamber of Egalitarians shall entitle every principality to a ratio of one representative per every hundred citizens deemed to be peasantry, per every five hundred citizens deemed to be middle-class, per every thousand citizens deemed to be upper-class, and per every five thousand citizens deemed to be nobility or entitled special rights from foreign lands. The Chamber of Egalitarians will exist in order to protect the rights and privileges of the impoverished, but also to equally defend all opinions wherever they may originate. (repealed with Addendum IV)
- Members of the Chamber of Egalitarians must be over thirty years of age, and are entitled to eight years in office unless removed by proposed referendum. A separate referendum, which can originate in the Egalitarian Chamber or with Premier petition, can delegate a Egalitarian Councilman to a life tenure if he is found worthy of it. (repealed with Addendum IV)
- The Chambers Conjoined will meet to discuss law changes -- though they are expected to debate about the law from the three two bodies of legislation, it is agreed that the Lower Chamber shall propose a law that the Premiers have petitioned for, the Upper Chamber shall review it in tandem with the Proconsulate and Consulate, and the Chamber of Egalitarians will be the overseers to make sure that the law does not conflict with the equal suffrage that everyone is entitled to. (italicized portions repealed with Addendum IV)
- This section applies to minor law changes, such as changing the rate of taxes and tariffs -- major changes, such as an addendum to the codex or the change of a fundamental part of the Freehold’s government, are to be handled as determined in Article VI. Examples of minor law changes are assumed to be all laws that do not change what is explicitly written in this codex.
Article V: The Judicial Body of the Nation
- To augment the government will be a judicial body of government known as the High Justice, which will consist of the Justice, which oversees trials, and the Receiving Committee, which will review submitted cases from the Lower Chamber and determine if they are in the best interest of the codex and the continuance of the Freehold.
- The Justice will be composed of up to 20 persons, though a smaller number is advised to avoid gridlock. The Proconsul and Consul will work in tandem with the Upper Chamber to determine the proper number of judges to compose the High Justice, which is subject to change at any time; however, the number of judges on the High Justice can only change up to five times in a Proconsul’s term.
- The Receiving Committee will be composed of as many persons as needed to facilitate the ease of gathering and presenting information to the Justice. One committee member will be appointed in every borough, which can also be the prelate of that borough if so elected.
- The Receiving Committee is expected to be informed on all legal happenings pertaining to the central government and will delegate members to keep tabs on principality laws so as to ensure they do not infringe on the Freehold’s supreme laws.
- The Receiving Committee’s members need not be elected; they can be appointed by the Justice, or the job can be delegated to the Premiers or Prelates varying on region or by decision of the High Justice as a whole.
- The High Justice will also determine the wages and salaries that members of the government are expected to receive, are allowed to deny the passage of laws, and have the power of independently starting the process of removing the Proconsul or Consul from office.
- Due to the High Justice’s varying power, they are to be subject to much scrutiny from the public eye. So as to avoid corruption, instability, and majority rule, the judiciary is to determine the best course of action for the nation. They can be subject to a swift removal if they can not meet these expectations, which can be prompted by Prelate referendum rather than Premier petition, which only needs majority vote of 5/8th of the boroughs in any given principality to pass.
- Alongside deciding how many judges should make up the High Justice, the Proconsul and the Upper Chamber can directly remove and replace judges. This differs from Section II in regards that it is not removing the position entirely, and is not affected by the same five-per-term clause; the Proconsul can vacate and replace up to ten judges per term.
Article VI: The Revision of the Codex
- In the event that the Codex is deemed necessary for revision, or new parts must be added to it, or a major law must be implemented and ratified, there is a process that must be followed to result in legal and binding change of the Codex, leading up to an Assembly where all bodies of government congregate to discuss the change and vote on a resolution.
- In this regard, a major law constitutes a law that changes or otherwise alters the contents of the Farrowhalt Codex -- all tenets of government not listed here are reserved to the principalities, who may make their own laws based around the Codex, as long as they do not infringe on or alter the Codex to their own meaning.
- The prompt to begin this process can come from any proper source in government; the prelates, by virtue of majority vote (5/8ths), may petition their Premier, who in turn will bring the referendum to the Upper Chamber. The Proconsulate or Consulate are allowed to suggest additions to the Codex, which will prompt the same referendum. In this case, when they present a proposal, the Proconsulate and Consulate are allowed to vote on the bill -- this is the only time when they can do so, except in times of crisis when the Proconsulate and Consulate can temporarily pass laws that are deemed necessary for the continued existence of the Freehold. Premiers not backed by Prelates can present a petition to the Upper Chamber so long as at least three other Premiers are in favor of submitting the petition.
- The Upper Chamber shall vote on accepting the referendum, and if at least 3 chamberlains superior deem it worthy of review, the Assembly process begins.
- All bodies of government, with the exception of the Prelates who will be represented by the Premiers, must attend the political meeting referred to herein as an Assembly, which will take place as long as it requires to reach a suitable conclusion. The Assembly leader, who is appointed by the Consulate before the Assembly, will decree when it is over and time to vote on the matter at hand. This should not be a politically motivated choice -- it is merely to facilitate the conclusion of the Assembly in a timely fashion.
- Two-thirds of both Chambers must vote in favor of the new law, and at least the Proconsulate or Consulate must also approve of it by signing it, setting it into action. The Premierships can challenge the law after approval if the majority of them agree that it infringes on their rights or their suffrage.
- Certain laws, and the entirety of Article IX, will be set aside for ‘speedy amendment’; this ensures that laws that no longer apply in the future, and may pose a threat to the continued efficiency of the government ( i.e. laws that are made temporarily to enact order or peace but are hindrances to the continuance of government due to their restrictions) can be easily and quickly removed by virtue of 1/4ths vote in the Chambers Conjoined. The High Justice, along with the Chambers Conjoined, will determine the fate of certain laws and if they apply to the ‘speedy amendment’ definition if it comes into debate. All laws will have this ‘speedy amendment’ quality for at least 10 days after their passing, but are solidified after this grace period and must be removed in the traditional fashion.
Article VII: The Expectations of the Central Government and the Principalities
- The central government of the Freehold is to respect and uphold the equal suffrage and fair jurisprudence of all principalities in the Freehold.
- The central government shall not infringe on the equal suffrage or fair jurisprudence of any given principality, shall not forcibly remove a principality from the Freehold, shall not favor one principality over another, shall not collect irregular taxes amongst the principalities, shall not act beyond their reasonable means as defined by the Codex, and shall not embargo a principality based on trade and commerce.
- This clause reserves the right to change the rights of the government regarding the state, but this is subject to review by the High Justice. All restrictions listed here are also subject to review, but should not be represented as the only possible restrictions against the government regarding the state.
- The principalities also have restrictions applied to them regarding the central government, to ensure stability and the prevention of chaos whether it be political or otherwise.
- A principality shall not leave the Freehold unless a majority referendum for independence is passed, shall not defect to other nations, shall not declare war against the Freehold, shall not change their form of government while under the jurisdiction of the Freehold, shall not conspire with the other principalities to undermine the Freehold, shall not declare war on their own, shall not fight with other principalities, shall not create their own currency, shall not form alliances with other nations, and shall not falsely represent the Freehold or its ideals in foreign entities.
- Any of the restrictions listed here are subject to review by the High Justice, but should not be represented as the only restrictions applied to the principalities.
Article VIII: The Martial Responsibility of the Nation
- The principalities, alongside the central government, shall have the responsibility of arming soldiers, and if the principality has a coastline, to build and harbor vessels.
- Every principality is expected to produce at least 1% of its population as readily-summoned troops, and to finance these troops within reason. The central government shall decide the rules and regulations that soldiers are to follow, though this Codex does not explicitly codify the army in this way.
- Every principality that has a coastline or a port that can reach the sea is expected to produce and finance a navy, to be decided by the Upper Chamber as to the production values of each coastal principality.
- The Central government, administrated from the Principality of Farrowhalt, shall fulfill the role of being the backbone of the army, providing at least 2% of its population as military until the violent reaction to the Freehold’s establishment is quelled; the recruitment levels are to be raised every time the Freehold goes to war thereafter.
- The government may appoint a Grand General, who leads the armies in lieu of direct administration by the Proconsul or Consul. This Grand General does not need to be a citizen of the Freehold nor even affiliated with the Freehold whatsoever so long as they accept the position and are approved by the Proconsul and Consul unanimously.
Article IX: The Current Allies of the Nation
- To better protect the words contained in this Codex, and to ensure that it is fulfilled, these are the nations that the Farrowhalt Freehold recognizes and acknowledges as allies, potential or outstanding, as of the writing of this Codex.
- The Lord Paramouncy of Thyllanor, who has declared independence alongside the Farrowhalt Freehold and graciously granted the land needed to create this Freehold, is recognized as our foremost ally. They are to be recognized as fellow citizens, and until the violent reaction against the Freehold’s establishment and Thyllanor’s independence is quelled or has subsided, they are permitted to exercise their power as the leader of the coalition against the Kingdom of Andoras.
- The city-states of Meyron, Lavos, and Edynar recognize the Farrowhalt Freehold, and as a result the Freehold shall recognize them in turn. They are to be viewed as potential allies, and the City-State of Meyron has designated themselves as a land of sanctuary for any followers of the con-crownist philosophy, or citizens of the Freehold.
- The other city-states of Doras Edrossi; Ceryne, Thysia, Ethryke, and Vecys have remained neutral and do not declare themselves to recognize the Freehold. The Farrowhalt Freehold has recognized these powers, hoping to cement an alliance and provide mutual protection against the enemies of republics.
- The Village Territories of Doras Edrossi remain neutral in regards to the Freehold, and the Freehold does not recognize any of them in accordance with the Dealing Laws of the political Drakonian Union, until they are accepted as city-states at a quinquennial Dealing.
- The Farrowhalt Freehold does not recognize the sovereignty of the feudal state that claims to hold power over all Andoras, nor its current ruler Aeganar Dragomárus as this Codex is written, and will not willingly submit to their unjust claims over the area without self-defense. They are to be considered the enemies of democracy and self-determination, and the violators of human rights and common sense, and the Freehold encourages all like-minded peoples to rise in defense against the attackers until a peace that is beneficial to the continuance of the Freehold is achieved.
- Should any of the Freehold’s ties change or should more nations arise on Drakonius that wish to support the Freehold’s cause, this article is subject to speedy amendment; see Article VI, section VII, clause I.
And thus ends, as it stands on February 8th, 326, the Farrowhalt Codex, which its authors hope will prove to serve as a milestone and an example to the governments that will eventually follow in its wake. Feudalism poses a threat to our very existence, and we must snuff it out within our own lands if we are to convince others to do the same. Whatever you believe, whoever you serve, the things that you cherish; they all will proliferate while under the Freehold. For the first time in Drakonius’s history, its citizens will experience the freedom and quality of life that only the kings of yore were able to attain, yet seldom they maintained. With a codified government that will respond to the people’s wishes, and only put those in charge who will protect the rights of the people and their entitlements to justice and proper representation, the world may look just a little bleaker. For all men, for all seasons, for all graces and gods under the sun and stars, the Freehold shall prevail in its eternal quest, or die trying.
- Herein will be described all territories that have agreed to submit themselves to the Farrowhalt Codex, followed by the date of ratification.
- As of this date, October 19, 326 AC, eight territories have accepted the Farrowhalt Codex as the backbone of their government, and have agreed to join the Farrowhalt Freehold.
- The first territory to ratify this Codex was the Principality of Farrowhalt, ratified on the date of its publishing, February 8, 326.
- The second territory to ratify this Codex was the Principality of Voyatia, ratified on February 21st, 326.
- The third territory to ratify this Codex was the Principality of Colburgh, ratified on March 11th, 326.
- The fourth territory to ratify this Codex was the Principality of Norvo, ratified on March 13th, 326.
- The fifth territory to ratify this Codex was the Principality of Faerhold, ratified on April 28th, 326.
- The sixth territory to ratify this Codex was the Principality of Veono, ratified on May 9th, 326.
- The seventh territory to ratify this Codex was the Principality of Fangrest, ratified on July 1st, 326.
- The eighth and final territory to ratify this Codex was the Principality of Fraeduke, ratified on October 19th, 326.
Addendum I (12/23/326): The Definition of Citizenship and Candidacy
- On November 11th, a referendum was brought to the Upper Chamber’s attention by the Premier of Fraeduke, following the petition of several boroughs to review their case.
- A glaring part of the Codex lies in the essence that, although it alludes to citizen participation in its current state, it does not officially define nor codify it. To better involve the citizens under this government, and to encompass all matters of government in this Codex, this Addendum has been added the 23rd of December, in year 326 of the Dragomyr Calendar.
- As described in several Articles in the Codex body, many government positions exist for a man to aspire for, whether it be the Proconsulate, the Consulate, any member of the Chambers Conjoined, Premiership, Prelateship, and even members of the Receiving Committee that the High Justice depends on for due reception of cases. It was not made clear how one should prepare himself nor delegate himself to this position, and this addendum will clarify and list the ways in which someone can make themselves an applicable candidate.
- The people must know who they are to vote for, so anyone who intends to run for office must submit a notice of candidacy to the High Justice. Barring extraordinary circumstances or pending charges of treason against the candidate, they will accept the notice with no incident and legally recognize your status as a person seeking a position in government. This clause is subject to review by the High Justice, and not everyone is guaranteed acceptance.
- The candidate must meet all of the requirements for that position, such as age and property-holding, but other than that nothing is expected of the man other than that he performs the job because he wishes to make his country a better place, and not to consolidate power or support his faction. The will of the people will put him in power, not the will to muster his own power to put him over the people.
- The Codex will refrain from offering any methods of obtaining recognition for candidacy, as there are likely an infinite number of methods to sway the masses. It only enforces the laws present in the Freehold and upholds the laws of the principalities, and as such will attempt to strongly deter any illegal activity such as bribery or coercion happening in the political process.
- This will describe the recommended procedures of the Freehold during times of crisis or war, and gives temporary power to the executive body
- The removal of the Chamber of Egalitarians due to its impracticality and ease of abuse, particularly from the higher classes